Macrophages are innate immune cells and often classified as M1 macrophages (pro-inflammatory states) and M2 macrophages (anti-inflammatory states). Exosomes are cell-derived nanovesicles that range in diameter from 30 to 150 nm. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), including microRNAs (miRNAs), long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), and circular RNAs (circRNAs), are abundant in exosomes and exosomal ncRNAs influence immune responses. Exosomal ncRNAs control macrophage-linked intercellular communication via their targets or signaling pathways, which can play positive or negative roles in lung cancer and inflammatory lung disorders, including acute lung injury (ALI), asthma, and pulmonary fibrosis. In lung cancer, exosomal ncRNAs mediated intercellular communication between lung tumor cells and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), coordinating cancer proliferation, migration, invasion, metastasis, immune evasion, and therapy resistance. In inflammatory lung illnesses, exosomal ncRNAs mediate macrophage activation and inflammation to promote or inhibit lung damage. Furthermore, we also discussed the possible applications of exosomal ncRNA-based therapies for lung disorders.