Nrf2 which was recently reported to regulate the antioxidant genes and cellular redox regulators was highly expressed in EPCs. However, its role in ox-LDL-induced EPC oxidative stress and apoptosis has not been fully illustrated.
EPCs isolated from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells were treated with different concentrations of ox-LDL, Keap1 siRNA, and a specific p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 and then used to assay the cytoplasmic Nrf2, nuclear Nrf2, NAD(P) H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and Bax/Bcl-2 levels with Western blot, NQO1 mRNA levels with RT-PCR, ROS levels with H2DCF-DA, loss/disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential with JC-1, apoptosis with Annexin V and PI, migration with transwell chambers, and tube formation with Matrigel.
ox-LDL decreased the nuclear Nrf2/Histone H3 to cytoplasmic Nrf2/GAPDH ratio, NQO1 mRNA, and protein levels. ox-LDL enhanced ROS production, induced the loss of membrane potential, and increased the cell shrinkage, pyknotic nuclei, and apoptosis of EPCs. Keap1 siRNA increased Nrf2 nuclear translocation, NQO1 mRNA transcription, and protein expression and prevented ROS generation and formation of JC-1 monomers. ox-LDL increased the activation of p38. SB203580 significantly eliminated ox-LDL induced inhibition of Nrf2 nuclear translocation, depression of NQO1 mRNA transcription, generation of ROS, and formation of JC-1 monomers in EPCs. Keap1 siRNA decreased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio which was increased by ox-LDL in EPCs. ox-LDL decreased EPC migration and tube formation. Keap1 siRNA preserved the migration and tube formation of EPCs.
ox-LDL activated EPCs p38/Keap1/Nrf2 pathway and induced oxidative stress, dysfunction, and apoptosis of EPCs.
Ovarian cancer is a type of common gynecological tumors with high incidence and poor survival. The anticancer effects of the traditional Chinese medicine Solanum lyratum Thunb (SLT) have been intensively investigated in various cancers but in ovarian cancer is rare. The current study is aimed at investigating the effect of SLT on ovarian cancer cells. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and MTT assays indicated that SLT concentrations of 0.25 and 0.5 μg/mL were not cytotoxic and had significant inhibitory effects on the cell viabilities of A2780 and SKOV3 cells, hence were used for subsequent experiments. Flow cytometric and western blot analysis revealed that SLT effectively suppressed ovarian cancer cell proliferation via inducing cell cycle arrest and increasing apoptosis. Cell cycle and apoptosis-related protein expressions were also regulated in SLT-treated cells. Moreover, DCFH-DA and western blot assays demonstrated that SLT enhanced ROS accumulation and subsequently activated the p53 signaling pathway. However, SLT-regulated ovarian cancer cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration, invasion, and EMT were significantly reversed by an ROS inhibitor (NAC, N-acetyl-L-cysteine). Furthermore, A2780 and SKOV3 cells cocultured with M0 macrophages showed that SLT activated the polarization of M0 macrophages to M1 macrophages and inhibited the polarization to M2 macrophages, with the increased percentage of CD86+ cells and decreased percentage of CD206+ cells were detected. In summary, this study illustrated the anticancer effects of SLT on ovarian cancer cells, suggesting that SLT may have the potential to provide basic evidence for the discovery of antiovarian cancer agents.
Vatica diospyroides Symington is locally known as Chan-Ka-Pho in Thailand. Ancient people have used it as therapeutic plant for cardiac and blood tonic cure. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential cytotoxicity and selectivity of the extracts from V. diospyroides type SS fruit on cervical cancer HeLa and SiHa cell lines and to examine its underlying mechanism of action. MTT assay revealed that the extracts showed inhibition of cell survival in a dose-dependent manner and exhibited highly cytotoxic activity against both HeLa and SiHa cells with IC50 value less than 20 μg/mL along with less toxicity against L929 cells. Acetone cotyledon extract (ACE) showed the best selectivity index value of 4.47 (HeLa) and 3.51 (SiHa). Distinctive morphological changes were observed in ACE-treated cervical cancer cells contributing to apoptosis action. Flow cytometry analysis with Annexin V-FITC and PI staining precisely indicated that ACE induced apoptosis in HeLa and SiHa cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment of ACE with half IC50 caused DNA fragmentation and also activated increasing of bax and cleaved caspase-8 protein in HeLa cells after 48 h exposure. The results suggest that ACE has potent and selective cytotoxic effect against cervical cancer cells and the potential to induce bax and caspase-8-dependent apoptosis. Hence, the ACE could be further exploited as a potential lead in cancer treatment.
Defects in apoptosis are common phenomena in many types of cancer and are also a critical step in tumorigenesis. Targeting the apoptotic pathway has been considered an intriguing strategy for cancer therapy. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used in the People’s Republic of China for thousands of years, and many of the medicines have been confirmed to be effective in the treatment of a number of tumors. With increasing cancer rates worldwide, the antitumor effects of TCMs have attracted more and more attention globally. Many of the TCMs have been shown to have antitumor activity through multiple targets, and apoptosis pathway-related targets have been extensively studied and defined to be promising. This review focuses on several antitumor TCMs, especially those with clinical efficacy, based on their effects on the apoptotic signaling pathway. The problems with and prospects of development of TCMs as anticancer agents are also presented.
Tanacetumpolycephalum (L.) Schultz-Bip (Mokhaleseh) has been traditionally used in the treatment of headaches, migraines, hyperlipidemia and diabetes. The present study aimed to evaluate its anticancer properties and possible mechanism of action using MCF7 as an invitro model. T.polycephalum leaves were extracted using hexane, chloroform and methanol solvents and the cytotoxicity was evaluated using the MTT assay. Detection of the early apoptotic cells was investigated using acridine orange/propidium iodide staining. An Annexin-V-FITC assay was carried out to observe the phosphatidylserine externalization as a marker for apoptotic cells. High content screening was applied to analyze the cell membrane permeability, nuclear condensation, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and cytochrome c release. Apoptosis was confirmed by using caspase-8, caspase-9 and DNA laddering assays. In addition, Bax/Bcl-2 expressions and cell cycle arrest also have been investigated. MTT assay revealed significant cytotoxicity of T.Polycephalum hexane extract (TPHE) on MCF7 cells with the IC50 value of 6.42 ± 0.35 µg/mL. Significant increase in chromatin condensation was also observed via fluorescence analysis. Treatment of MCF7 cells with TPHE encouraged apoptosis through reduction of MMP by down-regulation of Bcl-2 and up-regulation of Bax, triggering the cytochrome c leakage from mitochondria to the cytosol. The treated MCF7 cells significantly arrested at G1 phase. The chromatographic analysis elicited that the major active compound in this extract is 8β-hydroxy-4β,15-dihydrozaluzanin C. Taken together, the results presented in this study demonstrated that the hexane extract of T.Polycephalum inhibits the proliferation of MCF7 cells, resulting in the cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, which was explained to be through the mitochondrial pathway.
Our previous study demonstrated that the 2-benzyloxybenzaldehyde analog CCY-1a-E2 is a potent compound against HL-60 human leukemia cell lines. To investigate the potential therapeutic application of CCY-1a-E2 for leukemia, we analyzed the antileukemic effects and safety of CCY-1a-E2 in the BALB/c mouse WEHI-3 allograft model. Our results showed that CCY-1a-E2 decreased the percentage of viable cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The IC50 of CCY-1a-E2 was 5 μM for the 24-h treatment of WEHI-3 cells. We examined the antileukemic activity of CCY-1a-E2 in the BALB/c mouse WEHI-3 allograft model. The CCY-1a-E2 (100 mg/kg) group was not found to have significantly decreased body weight compared with the control group, while the leukemia group was found to have significantly decreased body weight compared with the control mice. The CCY-1a-E2 (100 mg/kg) group showed no difference in spleen and liver weight, but significantly decreased levels of CD11b and CD45 compared with the leukemia group. In safety evaluation analysis, CCY-1a-E2 had no adverse effects on renal, hepatic and hematological parameters. Based on these observations, CCY-1a-E2 has efficacious antileukemic activity in the BALB/c mouse WEHI-3 allograft model.
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